Bupropion (/bjuːˈproʊpi.ɒn/, bew-proh-pee-on) is a drug primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid. Marketed as Wellbutrin and Zyban among other trade names, it is one of the most frequently prescribed antidepressants in the United States,[7] although in many English-speaking countries, including the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand, this is an off-label use.[8] It is also widely used to aid people who are trying to quit smoking.[7] It is taken in the form of tablets, and in the United States and most other countries it is available only with a prescription.[7] - buy Wellbutrin online
Clinically, bupropion serves as an atypical antidepressant fundamentally different from most commonly prescribed antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).[8] It is an effective antidepressant on its own, but is also popular as an add-on medication in cases of incomplete response to first-line SSRI antidepressants.[9] In contrast to many other antidepressants, it does not cause weight gain or sexual dysfunction.[9] The most important side effect is an increase in risk for epileptic seizures, which caused the drug to be withdrawn from the market for some time and then caused the recommended dosage to be reduced.[9]
Bupropion is known to affect several different biological targets, and its mechanism of action is only partly understood.[9][10] It has been widely described as a weak norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor.[10][11] However, studies with humans suggest that it does not significantly affect dopamine levels in the brain at clinically-used doses, calling into question the role of its action at the dopamine transporter in its effects.[10][11] Bupropion also acts as a non-competitive antagonist of several neuronal nACh receptors.[10] Chemically, it belongs to the class of aminoketones and is similar in structure to stimulants such as cathinone and amfepramone, and to phenethylamines in general.[9]
Bupropion was synthesized by Nariman Mehta and patented by Burroughs Wellcome in 1969, which later became part of what is now GlaxoSmithKline. It was first approved for clinical use in the United States in 1989. It was originally called by the generic name amfebutamone, before being renamed in 2000.[12] Its chemical name is 3-chloro-N-tert-butyl-β-ketoamphetamine. It is a substituted cathinone (β-ketoamphetamine), as well as a substituted amphetamine.