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How we make wheels
Now, let's read the articles from the magazine "Popular Mechanics", on how to make the forged wheels. 
 
We are in the forging shop Stupino Metallurgical Company, a giant towering over us press, developing force of 10 000 tonnes. A team of workers forge tooling changes, and Alexander Lovchev, deputy head of disks automobile and motorcycle wheels Stupino Metallurgical Company (SMC), reveals the secrets of forged wheels. "Actually, 'forged' - it's not exactly a technical point of view, it would be better to call them drives manufactured by hot forging in closed matrices - smiling Alexander. - But such a complicated name from the first few people can pronounce, so the word 'forged' quite caught on. "
 
"These wheels - distant relatives of aircraft - continues Alexander. - In the early 1990s, a lot of companies working in the Soviet times, aviation and space, with unique equipment and technology, found themselves without government orders. And in order to survive, had to go to the consumer goods. Someone began to make pots, and QMS - including wheels. Technology used aircraft really - as in the production of some important components of gliders. "In this regard, the Russian motorists lucky such media is not in all countries. And even where there is - like an extremely expensive equipment usually works mainly on aerospace (and not on the car) industry. 
 
From casting wheel to 
 
Foundry - the first stage of any steel production 
For CDs using the alloy AB type aluminum-based alloying additives magnesium, copper, copper, silicon and manganese. It not only vysokoprochen but plastic. Abroad analogue of this alloy is usually referred to as "aircraft-grade aluminum 6061» (aircraft grade Al 6061). The finished casting - cylinder with a diameter of about 20 cm - cut into pieces of desired length (depending on the size of future wheels), put in a basket and sent to the press shop. 
 
Sector stamp. When hot forging dies are used here are composed of several sectors. In the final formation of the disk upper part of the stamp is lowered and the sector converge. Excess metal thus extruded through the gap to form burrs 
There the workpiece while not even remotely resemble wheels, heated up, and with the help of the press "back off" - collapsed, making a "spring" thick twenty centimeters and a diameter of about half a meter. The process of further transformation in the wheel takes place in several stages. First, "spring" is heated to 430C, and with the help of pre-stamp (heated to about 350C) is converted to the "pan" - preforms for automotive wheels. 
 
After heat treatment, the wheels waiting to be sent to the shop machining 
"Pan" again go into the oven to heat up, and then a special conveyor takes them to the press with another stamp set - final. "The time between the release of the workpiece from the oven and actually stamping should not be more than 11 seconds, otherwise the workpiece cools below the critical temperature", - says Alexander. One of the workers lubricates heated stamp with special grease, the other two deftly grab "pan" long tongs, and transferred to the mold. The upper part of the press falls, rises - and that's from the press take out ready, except for the fin (excess material extruded at stamping) wheel. The first four-wheel stamped after the development of a new stamp go to control geometry - only then given permission to use the stamp for serial production of discs. 
 
Cylindrical rollers - it blank for future motorsport wheels 
Press firmly to 10,000 tons (QMS these two) allows to produce large-diameter wheels. "We - the only company in Russia, who have mastered the production of discs with a diameter up to 22 inches! - Proudly says Alexander. - Less effort simply do not push - will have to reheat the alloy to almost liquid state, but it is not volume, and 'liquid punching' - what we call the high pressure die casting. "
 
Heat treatment and control 
 
Despite the already tread resemblance, the mechanical properties of the wheels are still far from those wonderful qualities, which is famous for "forging". A famous it high strength (greater than strength aluminum disks at a much lower weight), ductility (as opposed to cast wheels, forged deform under high loads, and not destroyed) and elasticity (for moderate load they deform elastically). 
 
For all this time, and as necessary heat treatment. First, the wheel is subjected to quenching - uniformly heated for several hours in a furnace to 515S, and then rapidly cooled by immersing in water. After quenching the alloy has been desired fine-to-fiber structure, but for the fact that the wheels have acquired the desired mechanical properties, they need to "wear" - wait for the aligned structure and to remove internal stresses. Under normal conditions, it may take a couple of months, but not to save time, cut artificially sostarivayut: kept in an oven at a temperature of about 12-14 150-160S hours, then slowly cooled. 
 
One of the workers with a brush lubricates the die tooling special grease to the finished part from sticking to the mold felgen kaufen
After the heat treatment of not less than 10% of the blanks of each batch are monitored. Their surface is etched: on the bright etched surface are clearly visible defects punching and creasing. And one of the wheels of the party being cut ruthlessly cutting out of a special piece - the so-called template. Template polished and etched, and then carefully studied in the laboratory for the presence of defects of deformation and heat treatment of the alloy homogeneity. "Most of the defects found in the hub bearing parts, - says Alexander. - It is the most difficult from a metallurgical point of view of the character of deformations and thermal stresses. "At this stage, also carried out the control of mechanical properties of the alloy - the samples are fixed in special testing machine, which is determined using a tensile strength, yield strength, elongation and hardness. If defects and characteristic values ​​of the material does not fit the tolerances, the study is subject to another wheel from the party. If, however, and re-inspection confirms these findings, therefore, been a violation of the technological chain - and the entire lot is rejected. If all the parameters are normal - the party goes wheels for machining.

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